Canard (aeronautics)

A Saab 37 Viggen, the first modern canard aircraft to go into production

In aeronautics, a canard is an arrangement wherein a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft or a weapon. The term "canard" may be used to describe the aircraft itself, the wing configuration, or the foreplane.[1][2][3] Canard wings are also extensively used in guided missiles and smart bombs.[4][5][6]

The term "canard" arose from the appearance of the Santos-Dumont 14-bis of 1906, which was said to be reminiscent of a duck (canard in French) with its neck stretched out in flight.[7][8]

Despite the use of a canard surface on the first powered aeroplane, the Wright Flyer of 1903, canard designs were not built in quantity until the appearance of the Saab Viggen jet fighter in 1967. The aerodynamics of the canard configuration are complex and require careful analysis.

Rather than use the conventional tailplane configuration found on most aircraft, an aircraft designer may adopt the canard configuration to reduce the main wing loading, to better control the main wing airflow, or to increase the aircraft's maneuverability, especially at high angles of attack or during a stall.[9] Canard foreplanes, whether used in a canard or three-surface configuration, have important consequences for the aircraft's longitudinal equilibrium, static and dynamic stability characteristics.

  1. ^ Wragg, D.; Historical Dictionary of Aviation, History Press (2008), Page 79.
  2. ^ Clancy, L.; Aerodynamics, Halsted (1975), Page 293.
  3. ^ Crane, Dale (1997), Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms (3rd ed.), Aviation Supplies & Academics, p. 86, ISBN 978-1-56027-287-8.
  4. ^ Aerodynamic analysis of a canard missile configuration using ANSYS Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive, December 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2021
  5. ^ Effect of Tail-Fin Span on Stability and Control Characteristics of a Canard-Controlled Missile at Supersonic Mach Numbers NASA Technical paper 2157, June 1983. Retrieved 16 June 2021
  6. ^ Laser Guided Bombs FAS Military Analysis Network, 12 February, 2000. Retrieved 16 June 2021
  7. ^ Villard, Henry Serrano (2002). Contact! : the story of the early aviators. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. pp. 39–53. ISBN 978-0-486-42327-2.
  8. ^ Burns 1983.
  9. ^ Kundu, Ajoy Kumar; Price, Mark A.; Riordan, David (Apr 8, 2019). Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Approach. John Wiley and Sons. p. 237.