Liver

Liver
Anatomy Abdomen Tiesworks.jpg
The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen
Liver 01 animation1.gif
Location of human liver (in red) shown on a male body
Details
PrecursorForegut
SystemDigestive system
ArteryHepatic artery
VeinHepatic vein and hepatic portal vein
NerveCeliac ganglia and vagus nerve[1]
Identifiers
LatinJecur, iecur
GreekHepar (ἧπαρ)
root hepat- (ἡπατ-)
MeSHD008099
TA98A05.8.01.001
TA23023
FMA7197
Anatomical terminology

The liver is a major organ only found in vertebrates which performs many essential biological functions such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins and biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, and the production of hormones.[4]

The liver is an accessory digestive organ that produces bile, an alkaline fluid containing cholesterol and bile acids, which helps the breakdown of fat. The gallbladder, a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver which is afterwards moved to the small intestine to complete digestion.[5] The liver's highly specialized tissue, consisting of mostly hepatocytes, regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions.[6] Estimates regarding the organ's total number of functions vary, but textbooks generally cite it being around 500.[7]

It is not known how to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although liver dialysis techniques can be used in the short term. Artificial livers have not been developed to promote long-term replacement in the absence of the liver. As of 2018,[8] liver transplantation is the only option for complete liver failure.

  1. ^ Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24.
  2. ^ Elias, H.; Bengelsdorf, H. (1 July 1952). "The Structure of the Liver in Vertebrates". Cells Tissues Organs. 14 (4): 297–337. doi:10.1159/000140715. PMID 14943381.
  3. ^ Abdel-Misih, Sherif R.Z.; Bloomston, Mark (2010). "Liver Anatomy". Surgical Clinics of North America. 90 (4): 643–653. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2010.04.017. PMC 4038911. PMID 20637938.
  4. ^ a b "Anatomy and physiology of the liver – Canadian Cancer Society". Cancer.ca. Archived from the original on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  5. ^ Tortora, Gerard J.; Derrickson, Bryan H. (2008). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (12th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 945. ISBN 978-0-470-08471-7.
  6. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins; Charles William McLaughlin; Susan Johnson; Maryanna Quon Warner; David LaHart; Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-981176-0. OCLC 32308337.
  7. ^ Zakim, David; Boyer, Thomas D. (2002). Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease (4th ed.). ISBN 9780721690513.
  8. ^ Liver Anatomy at eMedicine